Wednesday 2 February 2011

Letters from Kildress 1879-80

Letters from Kildress

If you want to hear my song, based on these letters, go to
the song is called 'Little News from Dunamore' 
These letters were kindly sent to me by Virginia Cook of Oroville, California, a granddaughter of John Loughran, born in Kildress Parish.  They were written by friends and relatives in Kildress, to John Loughran, in Larksville, a coalmining town near Wilkes Barre in Pensylvania.  My interest in the letters is that my ancestors on my mother’s side, Michael Monaghan and Hannah McGerrity, came from the Dunamore area of Kildress Parish, and would have been relatives of some, if not all of the people involved in this correspondence.

With the exception of the one written from Liverpool, all the letters were addressed to John Loughran in America, by friends and relatives in Kildress.  They are reproduced and transcribed in chronological order, with the exception of the only undated letter. It appears next to an unsigned letter from Killucan, a townland in Kildress, dated 16 January 1880.  Both letters are written in very similar handwriting and refer to events around the New year;  I suspect that they are the first and the second part of the same letter. 

The letters as whole give an insight into life in America and particularly in Tyrone in the 1879-80, the content of the letters range from gossip about the romances of people in the parish, to reports of impending starvation within the space of a few lines.  I have attempted to faithfully transcribe the letters, reproducing the original spelling, punctuation and capitalisation. 

Dunamore NS*
7th April 1879
My Dear John
                        When I parted with you on Saturday morning I thought I should have seen you again that day in Cookstown: but “while man proposes God disposes” Truly however I and all the rest are very lonesome today when you are not here.  But I trust you can bear up in your much regretted departure from the midst of friends and acquaintances and that even amongst those Yankees you will be able to chat freely while your mind I hope will never forget those you left behind you.
I hope you will not let your spirits sink [?] for no matter whether if ever you come back or no I can promise to you that Mary Ann will remain faithful to the last, for I saw her last night  and she even cried when I  told her you were gone for good .  Don’t forget what I told you about her.
You might write me a few lines tonight or tomorrow before you leave; but in any case write me from Liverpool.  I trust you enjoyed yourself yesterday amongst the belles of Cookstown 
All the scholars are lonely, very lonely for you.  Trusting yourself, your father & mother, Sarah Ann, Minnie and all the rest are all well and wishing you a safe and easy voyage with kind regards and best wishes I remain dear Johnny
Yours sincerely
John J Monaghan.
Barney & Charley are always talking of you to-day.
Father Keenan was talking to me just now about Friday night and sends you his blessing.

*N. S. - National School The book”Kildress Rolling Back The Brambles” records that the master of Dunnamore School in the 1880s was John J Monaghan of Dunamore.  The 7th  of April 1872 was a Monday.  Presumably John Loughran was somewhere in Ireland en route for Liverpool, perhaps still in Cookstown or in Belfast?

Dunamore Nat. School
Cookstown, Co Tyrone
May 15 1879
My dear John
                        Many thanks for your beautiful letter which was as welcome as it was expected and very many more thanks for your high estimation of the “exiled Irishman” which I assure you I appreciate with a most sincere heart.  I see you have not yet quite forgotten the dear ones left behind you in this, our emerald isle.  You will in time; still I hope you will never forget to foster and cultivate a love for the land of your birth  - never forget  the happy evenings and nights spent among friends on the green meadows and heather clad hills that surround the home of your birth in that mud – bespattered townland of iniquity and sin – unfortunate Killukan*.
Need I say, my dear John, that all we felt more or less lonesomeness after your departure from amongst us; and had the thing happened unexpectedly, which luckily it did not, the shock would have been all the greater.  We felt that in your moving from our midst, society here had lost a worthy benefactor and a genial member.  However as the Almighty is the Dispenser of all things, we poor mortals must acquiesce in whatever he ordaineth for us.  And it is thus that “friend after friend departs”, for where is that union among hearts that must not come to an end?
Was it not fortunate that you were not in that vessel that perished?  And must you not all congratulate yourselves on being not only so blessed as to have missed sailing in the “Republic”* but also in being highly favoured with such beautiful weather and such a speedy passage;  Assuredly, if you had everything your own way you should not have desired more gracious things for the whole of you I am sure, walking on deck in that picture and emblem of despair – the “oak leviathan” – and looking around on the grand and majestic ocean, you had almost fancied that time had ended and eternity had begun.  Thoughts of the deeply planted love of home, the associations on the mountains brow endeared to the memory by hours of enjoyment of happy childhood – these and others , I am sure came often and rushing across the imagination in those dreary days and nights spent on board ship, and oh! the thought of such recollections entering one’s mind on an angry and tempestuous sea is enough to make a person’s blood run cold in his veins.  You certainly have reasons I say to be thankful for such a beautiful passage.  And I earnestly pray and fondly cherish the hopes that your good luck in being so favoured, may give you courage and determination to re-cross the Atlantic on a future day to see the friends and the girls that you have left behind you.  Remember my dear John, that very many here, and myself among them, would be very glad to see you once more; and of course I need not say that I hope our hope and wishes will be realised.
Scarcely anything worth mentioning has occurred here lately.  Felix and Jane are doing nothing since you left, as Felix is now working in Cookstown and does not be at home every Sunday.  You have reason to hope that some of the milliners or dressmakers of the town will “catch” his fancy and that you can claim your own on a future day.  I was not in that quarter since the night of the Convoy, nor I can’t tell when I may.  I was not speaking to Miss Monaghan since you left.  I hear Mikey Francis is doing it “big”.  But of course “any port in a storm”.  Thomas Mick [?] McKenna and the Mrs have left the other day for the New World.  There are some others also who have gone over there lately, and I hear of some that are now going.  There is some word that Peter Quinn, Corvanaghan (you knew him at school) is for Philadelphia in a few days; but I’m not sure.  The weather has been very fine since you left.  All the potatoes are “set”, and a good deal of turf cut as well.  No marriages, no deaths, except   [page missing?]
[The lines below were written vertically across the left hand margin of page one, from bottom to top.]
I just got your letter on Tuesday, so that you cannot say I delayed long in replying.  I did not see Ms McCullagh since the night of the Convoy .
The Sunday school was commenced here on last Sunday week.  There are no teachers stopping except a few Mininea*girls   - Betty Quinn was inquiring about you ===== I trust you are all well and not lonesome.  Please write soon again.     

*Republic I can find no reports of the loss of a vessel of this name.
*Killucan is a townland about ½ a mile south of Dunamore
 *an old spelling of the Kildress townland now written Meenanea, about ½ a mile north of Dunamore


                                                                                Dunamore May 19th 1879
My dear John
In reply to your very kind and welcome letter duly to hand, for which I feel obliged, I have to tell you, your friends and mine are all well and in good health thank God and I hope the receipt of this shall meet you and your family enjoying the same as for news of the country nothing has happened of any importance since you left since and except that Joseph McHugh wife has a young heir or heiress I have not been able to ascertain which, Unfortunately there has been no marriages nor yet there has been no death.
My dear John I think it strange you have not inquired how your dearest so, so was or is it possible that a ride across the Atlantic has produced such an effect upon you that her beautiful form has entirely vanished from your mind.  My dear John I have to congratulate you on your very speedy voyage and for having the luck of escaping the ship that was wrecked.  It was certainly an omen of “Good Luck” and I hope also of the bright prospects that awaits your career hereafter.  
I have not the least doubt that by perseverance and energy you shall figure as a man of great importance either as a literary man or a merchant or a council or perhaps a representative of some body of men as many an Irishman before you have acquired by their energy and enterprise.
But no matter whatever your future occupation or profession may be may be your future destiny I know devotedness to the Irish cause and your religion shall ever form the prominent feature of your character.
I am glad to find you have a house of your own besides secured a house beside you soon shall have one of your own and also that you are contented for after all it is the principle thing
Dear John Your presence I now miss in the church and indeed I think it strange not to see you there a form that was so constant in attendance.
How little I thought two years ago dear John that you would be across the billowy of the Atlantic but no person can tell what may be their future destiny
Dear John accept this short and hurried letter but in my next I will write a more lengthened one and give the news that may happen in the meantime.
I will conclude by bidding you Good bye, and sending my best respects to you and your mother and sisters
I remain dear John your sincere and devoted friend
Patrick Monaghan
P.S. I send you a paper by this post.
Do not forget but write soon again.
P. Monaghan


                                                                                                           Killuckan Dec
       28th 1879
My dear John it is with pleasure that I take my pen to write you these few lines to let you know that I am well & in good hoping this note finds you in good health & [?] I received your kind letter in due time I thought you quite forgot to write atall My dear Johny I was very glad to hear how well you were getting along & how well you were doing I often be talking about  how lucky you were to get away the time you did, because there is very little to be made in this country at present as you remarked in  your last letter there are some young men stoping in this country that can’t afford the price of the tobacco however the people here don’t seem to be discouraged for my part I think if I was as hard dealt with as some of them I would try some other land
My dear John there are a great many young men leaving this country this last month there left Killuchan for England Mick Lagan and Joe Lagan Robert Loughran and Bernard Loughran (Ned)  I expect you have Frank Devlin over there this Christmas he left here on the 9th or 10th of December for America I hope he has got a nice passage  you wanted to know how we got the crops saved the beginning of it with us here was the last days of September from the first of October we had fine weather but with little drying the crops were saved pretty well after a months hard work   no rain fell from first of October to this  there was a hard frost these three weeks last  Dear John I was glad to hear how well that country was doing so well I was by the paper that it was improving that wagers was rising rapidly I see by your letter you had a nice time of it while in Philadelphia if you were in this country you would scarcely get away for one day & then if you would too you would not see much worth looking at dear john I haven’t a mother then I wont stop all my days  round here of course there is something  that binds me it is something I really can’t explain to you now perhaps I am persuaded that Ireland is a nice place to live in & that I never was happier than I am at present or that I am socialising with
[the rest of the letter is missing]

Killuchan Jan 16 th
My Dear Johny I now take the opportunity of writing a few lines in answer to your kind and welcome letter which gives me great pleasure to hear of you being in good health; which this little note leaves me in a present thanks be to God for his kind mercy to me.  My dear Johny I trust you will forgive me for my ingratitude of not writing to before now : the truth is I was almost shure that I would have the wedding to tell you about in this letter but it seems that it is as far back as ever I was to get married to Jane *Lougheren Pady Andy [Written above] on new years day last but she took sick with a sore throat at that time so i never went back  since near her for I think it was not the will of God that we should join together in marriage: I was to get one hundred pounds with her now and at the old folks death the devide of all the effects about the house but I never intend to go on with it now and I suppose that I will be another year single yet: unless that you direct me where to get one now:  dear Johny this was the worst year that any man minds to see for it was a complete failing of every thing it was after Halloween when the corn was got in and for the potatoes the people will not have the seed and for turf there is none I may say:  and their is a very bad price for every thing  in the markets unless butter that is doing pretty well now when the people has scarcely any to sell it is fifteen pence per pound now 
Dear Johny if you were ever in this country now you would not know it: the half of the farmers in this country is away in England and America and left their wives and familys behind them and plenty of debt to pay also you would see every day gruppies [?] seasing in some direction and the poor peoples good centing for half price for their [go to bottom of first page] is no one to bid for them

[Is the text below the conclusion of this letter?]

Dear Johny I must tell you that I am doing pretty well only that I have a very busy time of it since I came here: I had the best corn that was in this country this year and got it pretty well saved  I had thirteen stacks and the potatoes done pretty well with me also but their was not a turnip in this country this year with the constant wet but I trust in God that this new year will be better it is appearing very well the it is very fine since it began   Dear Johny all your friends here is well and Joe McKenna is singel yet and I think will till he sees what will the times turn to:  their is a great deal of deaths in this country this winter and their was only too marriages at Dunamore since you left here
Dear Johny I have no more to say at present only I wish you * all sort of good and happiness for the new year and the same for ever: I will concude by sending you my love to you* in the warmest manner give my best respects to your father mother Sarahann Mary ellen maggy and little Mick  I remain your affectionate and ever loving friend until death
PM [- Peter Monaghan?]
good day and God be with you all**

*Inserted from line below
**Written up margin of the page.

Dunamore January 19
Sunday night
                        Dear Cousins Johnny & [?] i write you these few to let you know that we are all well hoping in  the mercies of god that the arrival of these lines will meet you all in the same I hope you will excuse me for not writing to you sooner which i own was very ungrateful of me i was waiting from day to day to have something new and pleasing to tell you but if i would wait for that i suppose i would not write for a long time we got your letter or [?] your mothers which i suppose was all the same Biddy or me will never forget all of you and all the kindness your father and mother showed to us we are thinking as long for yours and a lonely this day as we were after you left at any rate you are all happy to be out of this country

I could not tell you how happy Biddy was to hear from your letter that your mothers health was so good and hopes continues so and if the Almighty hears her prayers your mother and father will never have a sick head or anny of you neither She often wishes she could go without anny thing on her head She is pretty well this last few weeks we hope by this time that your father is getting his affairs settled to his mind but i think the troubles will never cease as your father could tell we had a great many deaths this winter Bernard Loughrans mother Peter Para Ban Biddy Neal McGurk and a great many others was all buried in a few weeks Mrs Geoffee[?] is rite well yet she never came down stairs this winter
i think the Almighty is putting a great many trials in our way to a a front of them is all our good friend leaving us and i doubt a good deal of the money i have out on the country  is in great danger of being lost  your father and mother Mick was all the good friends that would rise our hearts when would come in now my brother Mick got his passage taken from Mick Quinn on Yesterday on the American line to set sail on Saturday the 24 January on the Pennsylvania Steamer  Mick must go he was ejected at may last Mick and me was over with the agent in Armagh on the 8 January to see if we could settle with him  he would not do anything for him unless he payed all the Debt first and then the rent that he could not do my mother was buried 4 weeks ago and the night we came home from Armagh* the gray mare was dying So that was a great loss to him and you know it was a great loss to us for if i could get her at anny time i wanted her i never the want of a horse to now
So you see the loss of both Mick and the gray mare we will feel it very hard if you can do any thing for Mickey in the way getting work and advise him to be wise he promises to do something for us he might send us the price of a house before may he say if the agent does not sell the farm this season he can earn the money he thinks in March 1881 he will be fit to meet him you can do a all you can for me by encouraging him to help me he owes me a good Bill which if he does not send it i might never get it Bernard Conway is in Sixmilecross** today selling the mare if he sell he will be with him don’t let Mickey forget writing as soon as he lands for we will think very lonto [long to?] we hear from him we are waiting for a letter from your father hoping to hear from you soon
we all join in sending  your father and mother and all the girls and little Mick our love and best respects in the kindes manner
from your ever loving friends Peter and Bridget Monaghan

*Armagh is 35 miles from Dunamore
*Sixmilecross is 13 miles from Dunamore

January 28th
My Dear Friend Michael
I write to let you know that Mick Monaghan* and I are this length* on our way to America we will sail in the SS British Empire tomorrow.

* Note from Virginia Cooke This is the Mick Monaghan that Peter Monaghan was speaking about, he is on the 1880 census with Michael Loughran in Luzerne Co. Pennsylvania USA aged 33.
*’this length’ is a direct translation of a phrase taken from the Irish language, The ‘Ordinance Survey Memoirs’ record that in 1833 the majority of inhabitants of the parish spoke Irish.


             Dunamore NS*
My dear John                                                                                        2nd March 1880

                        I trust you will pardon my delay in replying to your kind and welcome letter duly received.  However you easily remember that my silence has not been nearly so protracted as your own in replying to my last; but I shall just now dismiss this subject with a hope that in future our letters to each other will be more numerous, and our replies are more punctual.

I have to say thank you most sincerely for your kindness in sending me so many papers, while I sent you so many few – a circumstance which I can only attribute to inadvertence, insomuch as I had several papers folded and addressed to you, but invariably I might almost , forgot posting in due time to send you one or two this week, and I trust you will forgive my seeming carelessness in not sending papers more regularly.    
I daresay Larksville is by this time well supplied with representatives from Kildress, as I understand you have got Michael Monaghan and Bernard Conway there – I trust all are well.  To give you an account of the news of this place would be as impossible as it is unnecessary; for I am quite certain, between letters and persons from Kildress, you are very well posted up in all interesting intelligence.  But still I can hardly refrain from relating a few incidents of more or less notoriety. Marriages – Patrick McCullagh has got tied to a namesake of his from Plumbridge*.  She is of rather diminutive stature; large circular lips; nose above ordinary size; and pretty neatly stopped, but of by no means engaging appearance.  “Betty Dick” has again entered the portals of wedlock with a light, ill-featured, unhandsome, middle-aged, beardy chap named Conway I think from near Plumbridge*.  Man! Had you been on the road last Saturday night fortnight when this couple was married you would have enjoyed, the fun was immense.  It was after ten of pm when they got spliced and even then the chapel was half full.  The crowd carried him on McGurk’s Street to make him give drink; but his father who had all the money ran away.  A party of couples surrounded the house afterwards; carried off the cart, and went through a mock auction of it; took out the wedding bread through a window; and finally succeeded in getting the old boy to stand a gallon I believe. “Shibby Go” or Lagan got married on the second Sunday of Lent to a fellow named Sharkey from Termon.  There was much fun that day too.  I need not tell you of the marriage of Pat Monaghan and Mary Cassidy.
There have been no deaths that i remember since Mikey Peddy went away, unless old “Biddy Banian” – the basket woman.  You can tell Mikey too that the old “Captain” was buried a week or two ago.
I suppose you heard of the great Strawmacklemartin Concert that took place in October.  I took a pretty conspicuous part in the programme; and the concert was really good throughout.  I was also at another concert in Gortreagh in December or January.  It was held in a new school there – I gave some readings and recitations.  The vocalists were all from Cookstown.
Your friend Joseph McKenna has been unwell for some time – he was attended by priest and doctor, but I believe he is now almost completely convalescent.
Since you left Patrick Girvin has gone to Ballymena* – I got him myself into a most splendid shop there.  Charley has also left us – He is in Dublin – in St Patrick’s since October; and I presume once he gets a situation he will take it and come back no more, permanently.  Ned Small* is also gone to England; but he told me before he left that America will shortly be his final destination.  Johnny Girvin is also gone to America last week.  But in fact it would be an impossibility to enumerate all those who have betaken themselves to that glorious land - that home of plenty the free and hospitable Columbia, since the beginning of winter.  This parish at present is in a most wretched and distressed state.  There are scores of families without stock or even food of any kind.  A committee has been formed, who have obtained the sum of £45 from the Dublin funds for distribution*.  Likely if they get this sum monthly there will be no deaths from starvation; otherwise there certainly must be.  The government is also going to supply the farmers with potatoes and seed oats on very moderate terms, th...[?] the Poor Law Guardians; and they have likewise given orders for all in great distress to receive outdoor relief in the shape of food, fuel, and clothing, let the parties so distressed be possessed of land or not.  But this last scheme will raise the rates to an enormous figure; and if acted on in this union, poor – rate next year will reach about 3/- or 4/- in the £.
Mary Ann Quinn is still at school; but for a length of time she has become such a beau – ideal for Joe Quinn and John McGurk that they have her really pitched to such an elevation, in her own imagination that she believes that when such extensive sycophants and flatterers of her, that she should no longer condescend to speak to ordinary individuals; so I think she has sealed her affections for some yet unknown personage.
Mary and Catherine desire me to send you their kindest regards and best wishes.
I think Mickey Francis has Jane entirely to himself as Felix McAleer is in Cookstown*. I was just once in Teebane* since you left – no more.  Please send me that “charmer” you met in the train when you write again till I pass judgement on her – don’t forget.  Kindly convey my kindest regards and fondest wishes to Sarah Anne, Minnnie and the rest, not forgetting Mikey Teddy, and accept the same yourself in the warmest manner from
Yours ever faithful well wishes
John J Monaghan
I forgot to say that your friends, so far as I know are all in the enjoyment of good health.  I think the “Irishman” auctioned his hay a few days ago; but he would permit nobody else to do so.
A Miss McElhatton of Mountfield* – Joseph Loughran’s sweetheart has entered upon connubial bliss with a widower – Andrew McGlivey [?] of Gortin- I think there can be no doubt that Joe and Maria McGurk will join, so far as appearances go.
Please write soon and don’t forget – I’ll expect a little from you immediately after Easter.  Let us know how are your sisters, especially Sarah Ann, and if they are at any business; also how are your father and mother, and if your father has got all matters settled yet; or is it still your intention to pursue a course of your own.           So trusting you will write soon as I am thinking long to hear from you again.
I am, as ev...
Charley Mikey Teady has gone to Cookstown to – day to buy clothes for America – He will leave in less than a month.  Write soon

*Plumbridge is 19 miles from Dunamore.
*Ballymena is about 35 miles from Dunamore.
* There is no Ned or Edward Small on the 1881 census of England and Scotland, so perhaps he had already gone to the USA 
*The Nation [The Irish Nationalist Newspaper] reported on 18 Feb 1880 that a grant of £23 had been made to neighbouring Pomoroy to be spent on food fuel and clothing.  On Tuesday, 9 March 1880 a correspondent from Dumore [sic] Kildress warned that dire distress is staring the people of Kildress Parish in the face, and hundreds of families are without food, fuel, and clothing.  Our condition, if not worse than that of the worst district in Ireland is certainly as bad.  We very much require help, and if a charitable public do not assist us, and the popular press make our condition known, our people must necessarily starve.  The letter was published in the Freeman’s Journal of 11 March 1880.  
The edition of Friday, 19 March 1880 reported that the relief committee chaired by the major of Dublin had granted £25 for relief in Kildress ( in addition to grants to Cappagh and Clonoe in the same locality and two days earlier, on 17 March, £20 for Lissan, Cookstown, Tyrone.  The edition of the 18 May 1880 reported that a grant of £10 was made to Kildress, Cookstown, Co Tyrone.  While the reports from early 1880 are mainly from Connaught, as the year progressed more reports of distress in Tyrone appear.   
John J Monaghan was co-opted onto the relief committee late that month, as reported in the Freeman’s Journal Sat. 20 March 1880 -    
A meeting of the above committee was held in the usual place on Tuesday evening.  Amongst those present were – Rev. Isaac Ashe, Rector [Church of Ireland], chairman Rev. P M’Namee P,P [RC Parish Priest]., vice – chairman; Rev. W. Wray P.M. [Presbyterian Minister Orritor Church] Rev. J Keenan C.C [Catholic Curate].; Messrs. B. Loughran, PLG[Poor Law Guardian].; C. Moorhead, P.L.G.: T. Black, P.L.G.; J. Brown, &c.  From the statement of accounts submitted it appeared that during the week ended 14th inst., 420 families, comprising 2,100 individuals had been relieved out of a sum of £45, made up of £25 from the Mansion House [Mayor’s fund] and £20 from the Land League.  The following resolutions were unanimously adopted on the motion of the Rev. P. M’Namee. P.P.:1. “That the best thanks of the Kildress Relief Committee are due and hereby tendered to the Mansion House Committee and to the Irish National Land League, for their generous donations to relieve the distress existing in this parish”. 2. That as it is customary to have two secretaries on committees such as ours and as the duties devolving on one secretary are too onerous, I propose Mr. J.J. Monaghan be added as a second secretary to assist Mr Brown”. 3. “That we are thankful to the Editor of the Freeman’s Journal for letting the conditions in our parish be publically known through his columns and we trust he will continue to give insertion to our reports &c.” 4. “That we again appeal to the charitable public to assist us by their subscriptions as distress and destitution are daily increasing in our midst”  N.B. – Any donations forwarded to the Rev. J. Ashe, Kildress, Cookstown: Rev. P. M’Namee, P.P., do.; Mr J. Brown, do.; or Mr J.J. Monaghan, Dunamore, Cookstown, will be gratefully received and acknowledged.”
*Cookstown is 11 miles from Dunamore.
*Teebane is about 2 miles from Dunamore.
*Mountfield is a townland 9.5 miles south west of Dunamore.

The following biographies of John and his father, Michael Loughran appear in the book “The Progressive Men of Wyoming” 1902.

John Loughran, the gentleman whose name heads this article, is one of Laramie county's enterprising stockmen, owning a well-improved ranch on the Platte River about eleven miles east of Fort Laramie, where he has been engaged in. the cattle industry since 1885, being a native of Ireland and the son of Michael and Catherine (Slane) Loughran, both of whom were born and reared in the Emerald Isle, and the mother sleeping her last long sleep in the old ancestral burial ground in County Tyrone.

Michael Loughran was a well-to-do farmer and land owner of that county and a man of considerable prominence. Possessed of much more than ordinary intelligence and judgment, he became an adviser among his friends and neighbors in matters of business, in no small degree being a molder of public opinion. In 1864 he came to the 'United States and engaged in mining near Wilkesbarre, Pa., leaving his family in Ireland until he could provide a comfortable home for them on this side of the water. After passing eight years in successful mining operations in Pennsylvania he returned to Ireland and brought his family to Wilkesbarre, where he continued his work until 1881, when he disposed of his interests there and moved to Denver, Colo., thereafter carrying on mining at Leadville and vicinity and he was thus engaged when his death occurred on May 8, 1884. He was buried at Leadville. His wife died on November 5, 1895, while on a visit to the land of her birth and, as already stated, rests beneath the green turf of the beautiful island which she loved so well.

John Loughran was born in County Tyrone, Ireland, on May 19, 1859, and received his educational training in the schools of his native place and at Wilkesbarre, Pa. When old enough to do manual labor he began working with his father in the mines and remained with him until twenty years old, when he started in quest of his own fortune, meantime accompanying the family to Colorado. After working for some months in a commission-house at Denver, he went to Leadville, near which place he was engaged in mining until his father's death in 1884.

John and Mary Hannah (Walker) Loughran and their daughters at Lingle Wyoming

He came to Wyoming in 1865 [sic 1885?] and took up his present ranch in Laramie County, and since that time he has been largely interested in cattle1 raising, meeting with encouraging success in this important and rapidly growing industry. Mr. Loughran's ranch lies in a beautiful section of country, and it is all irrigable, the greater part being susceptible of tillage. He has improved his place in various ways, has a comfortable home, in which he takes great pride, as well as in his lucrative business, which returns him a liberal income. He is a man of progressive ideas and broad views, easily the peer of the leading ranchers of the district in which he lives. His success as a stockraiser has been commensurate with the energy he has displayed since engaging in the business and to him as much as to any other man is due the credit of giving an impetus to the industry in this section of the state.

 This is another picture of John and his wife, Mary Hannah Loughran (nee Walker).  It was their wedding picture.  They were married on 1 July 1903. 
Mr. Loughran has never married. [He did so in July 1903, the year after the book was published] He was reared in the Catholic faith and remains true to the teachings of the church. In politics he is a Democrat and while active in his work for the party has no aspirations for office or public distinction.

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